Definitions

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  • Theism – The belief in an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent deity, who is providentially active in the world. [1]
    • Monotheism – belief in one God. [1]
    • Polytheism – belief in many Gods. [1]
  • Limited Theism – view that God is very powerful, but not omnipotent and omniscience. [1]
  • Atheism – belief there is no God. [1]
  • Deism – belief that an ingenious being designed and created the world but left it unattended. [1]
  • Pantheism – belief that everything is God. [1]
  • Agnosticism – view that we cannot know whether there is a God. [1]
  • Naturalism - any of several philosophical stances wherein all phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural are either false or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses. [2]
  • Argument Types [1]
    • a priori – rests on premises that can be known to be true independently of experience of the world.
    • posteriori – based on premises that can be known only by means of experience of the world.
  • Teleological Argument – The design manifested in the world shows the hand of a grand designer. [1]
  • Cosmological Argument – The universe is contingent – depending on something outside of itself for its existence. [1]
  • Ontological Argument – an a priori argument for God using ontology – first proposed by Anselm of Canterbury. [1]
    • Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relationships. [3]
  • Argument from Consensus – Virtually all cultures exhibit a belief in God(s). [1]
  • Argument from Religious Experience – appeals to mystical experiences and claims of extraordinary revelations for God’s existence. [1]
  • Argument from Evil – is the existence of evil compatible with the existence of God(s). [1]
    • Theodicy – the theoretical term for the problem raised by the existence of evil in a world created by a benevolent God.

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 Louis P. Pojman & James Fieser, Introduction to Philosophy, 4th Edition, Part III
  2. Wikipedia:Naturalism
  3. Wikipedia:Ontology